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Poland

Officially  - the Republic of Poland is a country in Central Europe bordered by the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south, Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east, Germany to the west and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave to the north. The establishment of Poland as a country is identified with adoption of Christianity by its ruler Mieszko I in 966, but the Kingdom of Poland was formed in 1025.

Poland is a unitary state made up of sixteen voivodeships and it is a member of the European Union, NATO, the United Nations, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).

After the fall of communism Poland has achieved a very high ranking in terms of human development and standard of living. In spite of the extensive destruction the country experienced in World War II and during the years of communist negligence, it has managed to preserve much of its cultural wealth.

Poland became one of the most educated countries in Europe, because the education of Polish society was a major goal or rulers in 12th century. The Jagiellonian University, founded in 1364 by King Casimir III in Krakow is the oldest university in Poland, the second oldest university in Central Europe and one of the oldest universities in the world. One of the reasons why the university was found was the need to have a class of educated people, especially lawyers, who could codify the country’s laws and administer the offices. On account of the long history of promoting the arts in Poland, a number of higher educational institutes dedicated to the teaching of the arts was found and there are seven higher state academies of music among them. It is also observed a significant increase in a number of private educational institutions. It all brings the total number of higher education organizations to over 500 and this is one of the largest numbers in Europe.

The culture of Poland results from an almost 1000 years of history and geographic location where Western Europe meets Eastern Europe and it was influenced by Germanic, Latinate and Byzantine worlds and other ethnic groups and minorities. It is the birthplace of many famous and prominent personalities, i.e.: Maria Skłodowska-Curie, Mikołaj Kopernik, Fryderyk Chopin, Tadeusz Kościuszko and Pope John Paul II. Polish literature includes many outstanding poets such as Adam Mickiewicz, Jan Kochanowski, Juliusz Słowacki, Witold Gombrowicz. Polish writers and poets, such as Czesław Miłosz, Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont and Wisława Szymborska have won the Nobel Prize in Literature and Polish movie directors such as Roman Polański, Andrzej Wajda, Krzysztof Kieślowski and Agnieszka Holland are Academy Awards winners.

After the formal collapse of communism and improving its image in the world, Poland received a support and effective entry into the structures of the European Union.

For more information poland.pl